Calprotectin is a soluble protein that is found in white cells; it is part of the bodies defence mechanism and has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties through its ability to sequester metal ions.
Calprotectin is actually formed from two proteins, S100-A8 and S100-A9 (alternatively known as MRP-8 and MRP-9) and it is the heterodimer of these two proteins that is found inside the white cells.
When calprotectin is released from white cells, it initiates a strong inflammatory response and rapidly forms a tetrameric format in conjunction with metal ions (calcium, zinc, magnesium).
There is as much calprotectin in white cells as there is haemoglobin in red cells, accounting for around 60% of the soluble protein content.
In conditions which provoke an inflammatory response the level of calprotectin in the blood can increase significantly.
Although it is a non-specific marker, it can be used to aide diagnosis and determine the severity of certain conditions in conjunction with the other clinical evidence.
The diagnostic advantage of calprotectin detection over other disease markers is that it is stored in the cell and released immediately in response to local situations. In contrast, other markers may be released by downstream pathways or need to be synthesised leading to delays in detection.
Although calprotectin is a non-specific marker, there have been publications to show it to be of value in the diagnosis and monitoring of various conditions including:
BÜHLMANN Serum Calprotectin Assays
BÜHLMANN Quantum Blue® sCAL
The Quantum blue test system combines the ease and speed of lateral flow technology with full quantitation by means of a small bench top reading device. (BI-POCTR-ABS3).
BÜHLMANN sCAL ELISA
The sCAL ELISA is a microtitre based assay kit for determination of the dimeric format of calprotectin in serum samples.
BÜHLMANN sCAL turbo
The BÜHLMANN sCAL® turbo particle enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) allows quantification of calprotectin in human serum samples on clinical chemistry analysers.